Spyware Laws – An Overview

spyware laws

Before discussing spyware laws, we must first understand the meaning of “spyware,” and how it can be used. Spyware is a type of software that is specifically designed to gather information about an individual or organization without their knowledge. It can be installed on a computer or mobile device and can collect a variety of information, including internet browsing history, login credentials, and the contents of private conversations and messages. Spyware can be used for legitimate purposes, such as monitoring the usage of company-owned devices or tracking the location of a missing phone. However, it can also be used illegally, such as to steal sensitive information or invade an individual’s privacy.

There are many different types of spyware, including keyloggers, which record everything a person types on their device; tracking cookies, which follow a person’s internet usage; and screen capture software, which takes periodic screenshots of a device’s screen. Spyware can be delivered through a variety of means, including email attachments, malicious websites, and infected software downloads.


Legal Considerations for Spyware

Spyware laws and the accompanying legal issues are complex and often depend on the specific circumstances of its use. In many cases, the use of spyware is illegal because it violates an individual’s privacy. For example, it is generally illegal to install spyware on someone else’s device without their knowledge or consent. However, there are also cases where the use of spyware may be legal, such as when it is used by law enforcement agencies as part of a criminal investigation.

One federal law that addresses the issue of spyware is the Stored Communications Act (SCA). The SCA is a part of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) and is designed to protect the privacy of electronic communications, including emails, text messages, and other types of digital communication. The SCA prohibits the unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, stored electronic communications, as well as the unauthorized interception of electronic communications in transit.

Under the SCA, it is generally illegal to access someone’s electronic communications without their permission, unless you are the service provider or have a valid legal reason for doing so. This means that it is generally illegal to install spyware on someone’s device or access their electronic communications without their knowledge or consent.

There are several exceptions to the SCA’s prohibition on unauthorized access to electronic communications. For example, the SCA allows law enforcement agencies to intercept electronic communications with a court order or warrant. It also allows service providers to access customer communications in order to maintain their systems or protect against fraud or other illegal activity.

In addition to the SCA, there are also state laws that address this issue. These laws vary from state to state and may have different definitions of what constitutes spyware and what is considered illegal activity. Some states have laws specifically targeted at spyware, while others address it under more general computer crime laws.


Overall, the use of spyware raises significant legal and ethical concerns. While it can be used for legitimate purposes, such as monitoring the usage of company-owned devices or tracking the location of a missing phone, it can also be used to invade an individual’s privacy and steal sensitive information. As a result, it is important to be aware of the potential risks and legal implications of using spyware and to use it only in accordance with the law. Contact attorneys at Montague Law for questions regarding spyware laws.

The information provided on this website does not, and is not intended to, constitute legal advice; instead, all information, content, and materials available on this site are for general informational purposes only. Legal considerations surrounding spyware are complex and highly fact specific to any given circumstance and readers should contact an attorney for advice regarding any type of legal matter.

Legal Disclaimer

The information provided in this article is for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. The content presented is not intended to be a substitute for professional legal, tax, or financial advice, nor should it be relied upon as such. Readers are encouraged to consult with their own attorney, CPA, and tax advisors to obtain specific guidance and advice tailored to their individual circumstances. No responsibility is assumed for any inaccuracies or errors in the information contained herein, and John Montague and Montague Law expressly disclaim any liability for any actions taken or not taken based on the information provided in this article.

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