Decoding the Surge in Cryptocurrency Enforcement Action: What It Means for Investors

Protecting investors concept illustration

In short, Cryptocurrency enforcement action involves regulatory authorities taking legal steps against violations in the digital currency sphere. It includes investigations, penalties, and litigation to enforce laws, protect investors, and prevent illegal activities like fraud and money laundering in the crypto market.

As we navigate the digital financial landscape of the 21st century, one phenomenon is impossible to ignore: the surge in cryptocurrency enforcement action. This spike is not random, but rather a response to an increasingly digitized global economy. The question is, what does this rise in cryptocurrency enforcement action mean for investors in this fast-paced, high-stakes market? Let’s explore together.

Key Takeaways

  • Cryptocurrency enforcement actions have been on the rise, with a record-breaking 784 SEC enforcement cases initiated in 2023.
  • The Biden administration has implemented a proactive strategy for cryptocurrency regulation and compliance to address illicit activities facilitated by crypto assets.
  • Crypto businesses and investors should prepare for increased enforcement through proper registration/licensing, robust internal controls/policies, and staying informed of regulatory developments.

The Rise of Cryptocurrency Enforcement Actions

SEC logo on a building

A noteworthy development in recent years is the significant uptick in the number of enforcement actions, particularly targeting crypto asset trading platforms. The enforcement actions have been on an upward trajectory, with civil enforcement action cases increasing year after year, and the year 2023 setting a record for the number of enforcement actions initiated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on crypto asset trading platform operators, emphasizing the importance of a compliant trading platform.

Record-breaking numbers in 2023

The year 2023 was particularly significant in the crypto industry, not only for its record-breaking numbers in terms of enforcement actions but also for the high-profile figures targeted by these actions. Among them were Binance Holdings Ltd., Coinbase Global Inc., and Terraform Labs, to name a few.

With a total of 784 enforcement actions filed by the SEC, including 24 actions specifically targeted at cryptocurrency violations, 2023 marked an impactful year in the enforcement’s work.

Comparing previous years’ enforcement actions

When we compare the enforcement actions in 2023 with previous years, a clear trend emerges. The number of cryptocurrency enforcement actions has been on a steady rise, with 2022 seeing a record 30 crypto-related enforcement actions, a 50% increase from the previous year.

This trend signifies the SEC’s growing focus on the crypto sector, with a noticeable surge in cases related to allegations of fraud and unregistered securities offerings.

The role of the Biden administration

Driving this surge in enforcement actions is the Biden administration’s proactive strategy for cryptocurrency enforcement. This approach emphasizes heightened enforcement and regulation, particularly in addressing illicit activities facilitated by cryptocurrency.

The administration has also implemented measures such as:

  • the release of an executive order on a comprehensive government-wide strategy for digital assets, including the development of a digital asset trading platform
  • establishing research committees
  • progressing towards a regulatory framework, including administrative proceedings.

Crypto Asset Securities and Regulatory Oversight

Regulatory compliance concept illustration

Now that we’ve examined the surge in enforcement actions, understanding the function of regulatory oversight in crypto asset securities becomes paramount. Regulatory oversight ensures that crypto assets comply with the guidelines set forth by regulatory bodies, such as the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) and the Securities Exchange Act, thereby ensuring the integrity of the securities markets.

Defining crypto asset securities

At the core of regulatory oversight is the definition of crypto asset securities. According to federal securities laws, a crypto asset security is a cryptocurrency or digital asset that falls under the classification of a security. This classification is based on factors such as the nature of the investment and the reliance on the efforts of others for profit.

The role of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) significantly contributes to cryptocurrency oversight. It holds regulatory jurisdiction over derivatives transactions, such as swaps, futures, and options, that are associated with cryptocurrencies.

The CFTC collaborates with other regulatory bodies like the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in regulating cryptocurrencies through a collaborative regulatory framework.

Compliance with the Securities Exchange Act

Another vital facet of regulatory oversight is compliance with the Securities Exchange Act. Crypto assets classified as securities must register their offerings and adhere to the regulations of the Act. This ensures transparency in the market, protects investor interests, and maintains the integrity of securities markets.

High-Profile Cases and Fraud Charges

Legal documents and gavel on a desk

Several high-profile cases and fraud charges have emerged due to the increased enforcement actions. These cases, such as Ripple Labs and XRP, market manipulation schemes, and unregistered Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), have significantly contributed to the evolving landscape of crypto regulation.

Ripple Labs and XRP

One such high-profile case is that of Ripple Labs and its cryptocurrency, XRP. The SEC initiated a legal action against Ripple Labs, accusing the company of a $1.3 billion securities fraud related to the sale of XRP to individual investors.

The case, which is still unresolved, has sparked a heated debate over the classification of XRP as a security.

Market manipulation and pump-and-dump schemes

Market manipulation schemes, such as pump-and-dump schemes, are another area of concern in the cryptocurrency industry. These deceptive practices, which involve artificially inflating the price of a cryptocurrency for profit, undermine the integrity of the market and pose significant risks to investors.

ICOs and unregistered offerings

ICOs and unregistered offerings present yet another challenge in the crypto space. These offerings, which involve the sale of new cryptocurrencies or tokens to investors, often fail to comply with the necessary registration requirements, leading to a lack of transparency and potential risks for investors.

The Impact of SEC Chair Gary Gensler on Cryptocurrency Enforcement

Gary Gensler delivering a speech

Few figures cast a wider shadow in the realm of crypto regulation than Gary Gensler, the Chair of the SEC. Gensler’s background and views on crypto regulation have significantly influenced recent policy initiatives and may have future implications for the industry.

Gensler’s background and views on crypto regulation

Before taking the helm at the SEC, Gensler served as a professor at MIT, where he taught courses on cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. His stance on crypto regulation is clear:

  • Existing securities laws apply to the crypto market.
  • He believes that most cryptocurrencies fall under the jurisdiction of the SEC.
  • The crypto industry is rampant with noncompliance.

Recent speeches and policy initiatives

Recent speeches and policy initiatives from Gensler highlight his dedication to crypto market regulation. Some of his key priorities include:

  • Emphasizing the importance of industry compliance with securities laws
  • Advocating for enhanced investor protection
  • Promoting transparency and accountability in the crypto market

These initiatives demonstrate Gensler’s commitment to creating a safe and regulated environment for cryptocurrency investors.

Future implications for the crypto industry

As for the future implications of Gensler’s policy proposals, they are likely to bring about more rigorous regulations and elevated compliance standards for cryptocurrency initiatives and investors. However, it’s crucial to strike a balance between regulation and innovation to foster sustainable growth in the crypto market.

Protecting Investors and Ensuring Market Integrity

Protecting investors concept illustration

The ultimate aim of cryptocurrency enforcement actions is:

  • Safeguarding investors
  • Preserving market integrity
  • Holding wrongdoers accountable
  • Strengthening audit standards and disclosures

By taking these actions, regulatory bodies like the SEC aim to safeguard the interests of investors and uphold the integrity of the market.

Benefits for the investing public

The investing public benefits significantly from the enforcement of cryptocurrency regulations. It safeguards investors from fraudulent activities, improves public policy, and maintains market integrity, among other benefits.

Moreover, the fiscal year’s results demonstrate that stronger audit standards and disclosures provide investors with access to high-quality financial information, instilling confidence in the quality of this information and ultimately enhancing investor protection.

Holding wrongdoers accountable

Cryptocurrency enforcement’s cornerstone is ensuring wrongdoers are held accountable. Actions that serve to uphold regulatory enforcement’s work and safeguard investors within the cryptocurrency sector include:

  • Adherence to relevant laws
  • Enforcement measures
  • Individual culpability
  • Corporate responsibility

Strengthening audit standards and disclosures

Strengthening audit standards and disclosures is another significant aspect of cryptocurrency enforcement. By improving transparency and accountability, stronger audit standards and disclosures can help to prevent fraudulent activities and scams within the cryptocurrency market.

Challenges and Criticisms of Cryptocurrency Enforcement

Cryptocurrency enforcement, despite its advantages, confronts a fair share of challenges and criticisms. Balancing innovation with regulation, addressing inaccurate data, and dealing with the debate over jurisdiction and regulatory overreach are some issues that need to be addressed to create a more robust and efficient regulatory framework.

Balancing innovation with regulation

A critical challenge in the cryptocurrency industry is striking a balance between innovation and regulation. While regulation can provide legal clarity that encourages institutional investment and new technology development, overly stringent or ambiguous regulations can hinder innovation and prevent the industry from realizing its full potential.

Inaccurate data and the need for better reporting standards

Inaccurate data is another issue that complicates cryptocurrency enforcement. Errors in cost-basis calculations, spreadsheet formulas, and transaction labels can distort the true picture of cryptocurrency transactions and complicate enforcement efforts.

Therefore, better reporting standards are needed to ensure the accuracy and reliability of cryptocurrency data.

The debate over jurisdiction and regulatory overreach

The debate over jurisdiction and regulatory overreach is another area of controversy in cryptocurrency enforcement. Some believe that the SEC’s assertion of authority over crypto assets amounts to regulatory overreach, potentially hindering innovation and restricting the use of cryptocurrencies.

However, others argue that these measures are necessary to protect investors and maintain market integrity.

2023 SEC Activity

Fiscal year 2023 was a significant period for the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in terms of enforcing regulations in the cryptocurrency sector. The SEC focused on a variety of misconducts including large-scale frauds, unregistered crypto asset offerings, and illegal promotional activities by celebrities.

One of the major areas of action was against fraudulent activities in the crypto space. High-profile cases involved Terraform Labs and its founder Do Kwon, Richard Heart and his entities Hex, PulseChain, and PulseX, and key figures from FTX, including CEO Samuel Bankman-Fried. These charges underscored the SEC’s commitment to cracking down on fraudulent schemes within the cryptocurrency market.

Another critical area of focus was on unregistered securities offerings. The SEC charged several firms, including Genesis/Gemini, Celsius, Kraken, and Nexo, for allegedly offering unregistered securities through crypto asset lending or staking programs. Notably, Kraken and Nexo ceased their unregistered offerings, with Kraken agreeing to pay $30 million and Nexo $22.5 million in penalties. Additionally, the SEC for the first time took action against issuers of non-fungible tokens (NFTs), charging companies like Impact Theory LLC and Stoner Cats 2 LLC for conducting unregistered offerings.

The SEC also targeted crypto intermediaries such as Beaxy, Bittrex, Binance, and Coinbase for alleged noncompliance, highlighting the risks associated with the commingling of exchange, broker-dealer, and custodial functions within these entities.

Furthermore, the SEC acted against several celebrities, including Paul Pierce and Kim Kardashian, for unlawfully promoting crypto asset securities without disclosing their compensation, resulting in significant penalties. This action extended to other influencers who also faced charges for similar undisclosed promotional activities.

Overall, fiscal year 2023 marked a heightened level of scrutiny and enforcement by the SEC in the crypto asset space, emphasizing the need for compliance with federal securities laws and the importance of transparency in crypto-related activities.

The SEC Authority

The SEC has authority to investigate and take action against violators of securities laws, and has recently ramped up enforcement activity against cryptocurrency companies. The SEC has brought actions against these companies for securities fraud, selling unregistered securities, and violating registration provisions of the Securities Act. Courts have generally upheld the SEC’s authority to regulate certain crypto-assets as securities, applying the Howey test to determine whether they qualify as investment contracts.

Preparing for Increased Enforcement: Tips for Crypto Businesses and Investors

With the ever-evolving regulatory landscape for cryptocurrencies, it’s vital that businesses and investors stay updated and brace for heightened enforcement. By ensuring proper registration and licensing, developing robust internal controls and policies, and staying informed of regulatory developments, businesses and investors can navigate this evolving landscape with confidence.

Ensuring proper registration and licensing

For any cryptocurrency business, the initial step is to ensure proper registration and licensing. Given the regulatory nuances in each state, businesses need to familiarize themselves with the distinct licensing prerequisites in each state where they intend to conduct operations.

Developing robust internal controls and policies

Another essential step for crypto businesses is to develop robust internal controls and policies. To prevent fraud and non-compliance, businesses should:

  • Establish formal compliance programs
  • Integrate stringent onboarding procedures
  • Constantly review and revise their controls and policies to align with evolving regulatory frameworks.

Staying informed of regulatory developments

In this fast-paced industry, keeping abreast of regulatory developments is of paramount importance. With regulations changing frequently, businesses and investors need to stay abreast of the latest regulatory advancements to adeptly navigate the cryptocurrency market.


In conclusion, the rise in cryptocurrency enforcement actions is a clear indication of the increasing attention being paid to the crypto industry by regulatory bodies. While challenges and criticisms exist, the ongoing efforts by entities like the SEC and the CFTC aim to protect investors, ensure market integrity, hold wrongdoers accountable, and strengthen audit standards and disclosures. As the regulatory landscape continues to evolve, businesses and investors need to ensure proper registration and licensing, develop robust internal controls, and stay informed of regulatory developments. In doing so, they can confidently navigate the world of cryptocurrencies and contribute to a more transparent and secure industry.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can law enforcement seize cryptocurrency?

Law enforcement can seize cryptocurrency if they obtain proper warrants and have access to an unencrypted wallet or know the encryption code. Bitcoin seizure warrants may be sealed from the public to protect the identity of the custodian who hosted the wallet.

Who investigates cryptocurrency crimes?

The Department of Justice, the SEC, CFTC and FBI are the main federal agencies responsible for investigating cryptocurrency crimes. The MIMF Unit is also a leader in prosecuting fraud and market manipulation related to cryptocurrencies.

Can police freeze crypto account?

Yes, police can freeze cryptocurrency accounts by obtaining a warrant or subpoena from the online wallet operator.

How many enforcement actions does the SEC take each year?

The SEC filed a total of 784 enforcement actions in 2023, representing an 8% increase compared to the prior year. This included 91 enforcement actions against public companies and subsidiaries, which was a 34% increase over the same period.

What are the benefits of cryptocurrency enforcement actions for the investing public?

Cryptocurrency enforcement actions benefit the investing public by safeguarding them from fraud, strengthening public policy, addressing emerging threats, maintaining market integrity, and preventing securities violations.

Legal Disclaimer

The information provided in this article is for general informational purposes only and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. The content presented is not intended to be a substitute for professional legal, tax, or financial advice, nor should it be relied upon as such. Readers are encouraged to consult with their own attorney, CPA, and tax advisors to obtain specific guidance and advice tailored to their individual circumstances. No responsibility is assumed for any inaccuracies or errors in the information contained herein, and John Montague and Montague Law expressly disclaim any liability for any actions taken or not taken based on the information provided in this article.

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